comportement du consommateur, Expérience client, Stratégies expérientielles

Le marketing des micro-moments au coeur de l’expérience de la marque

Google propose aux marques de repenser leur stratégie marketing, en se concentrant sur les micro-moments. On comprend « moment » comme un point de contact entre la marque que le consommateur, déclenché par le consommateur (recherche d’information, achat) et donc comme un maillon de ce qui forme l’expérience de la marque du point de vue du consommateur et le parcours client (« consumer journey ») dans une terminologie plus centrée sur la marque ou l’entreprise.

Ces points de contact sont qualifiés de petit (micro) sans doute pour insister sur leur caractère quotidien, éphémère et furtif. Aussi anodins qu’ils puissent paraître les micro-moments façonnent l’expérience globale de la marque.

smart

micro moment.png

Les micro-moments s’articulent entre les moments « I-want-to-know » (recherche d’information), les moments « I-want-to go » (recherche de destination), les moments « I-want-to-buy » (achat) et enfin les moments « I-want-to-do » (recherche d’activités). Les micro-moments se caractérisent par conséquent par une intention claire de la part du consommateur centrée sur son besoin, un contexte précis et un caractère immédiat, le micro-moment ne dure pas. Les micro-moments sont cruciaux dans le parcours consommateur car ils en déterminent souvent l’issue.

Le micro-moment, nouveau champ de bataille des marques

Les micro-moments sont, selon Google, le nouveau champ de bataille des marques. L’importance prise par les écrans, en particulier, par les smartphones, dans la vie de nos contemporains, est telle, qu’il serait dommage que les marques ne tirent pas profit des 150 fois en moyenne par jour et des 177 minutes que nous consacrons à consulter nos téléphones portables. Le marketing mobile est parfaitement adapté pour mettre à profit les micro-moments, en répondant en temps réel, de façon précise aux attentes spécifiques des consommateurs.

L’approche par les micro-moments fournit à l’entreprise un cadre compréhensible par tous pour  adopter une vision fluide de l’expérience omnicanale. Il est certain que les marques en capacité de se positionner avant les autres sur les micro-moments disposeront d’avantages concurrentiels stratégiques.

Pour aller plus loin

Micro moments by Google

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comportement du consommateur, Expérience client, Focus théoriques, Posts in English

Clarifying vocabulary around the experience

In management sciences literature the vocabulary associated with the experience, in the form of adjectives (hedonic, extraordinary, autotelic or instrumental) or noun modifiers (consumer experience, shopping experience…), serves various purposes.

It is used, according to the case, to specify the context of the experience, its intensity, its purpose . This vocabulary continues to evolve with research in the experiential stream.

Qualifying the context: Carù and Cova (2006), citing the research in consumption sociology of Edgell et al. (1997) use the term « consumer experience » to designate commercial consumption experiences and distinguish them from citizen, family, and friendly experiences that unfold outside the marketplace.

Qualifying intensity: In addition to terms that specify the context of the experience, there are also terms that qualify the intensity of interaction and even its exceptional character in the subject’s life. In the beginning, the experiential stream tended to highlight the extraordinary character of the experience while more recent research focuses on its ordinary quality.

– extraordinary experience (Arnould and Price, 1993)

– ordinary and even infraordinary experience (Badot and Filser, 2007)

intensity
Qualifying the intensity of the experience

– peak experiences (Maslow, 1964), which are mystical in nature, are described as moments characterized by feelings of intense happiness and wonder along with an awareness of the existence of a higher order.

Peak
mystical and intense

– optimal experiences (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990, 1997) lead to a state of “flow”. They involve performing tasks that are accessible for the individual but that also require a specific aptitude. The individual, focused on the task, pursues a clearly identified goal. Preoccupation with the self disappears and perceptions of time are altered. Browsing the web can induce a state of flow in certain subjects .

Specifying the purpose of the experience:

– an experience is qualified as instrumental when it is undertaken to reach an external goal and autotelic when the experience is performed for its own sake

– an experience is referred to as hedonic when its goal is the pursuit of pleasure

More about flow and optimal experiences

Source: Roederer, C. (2012) Research notes Contribution to the Conceptualization of Consumption Experience: Emergence of the Dimensions of an Experience through Life Narratives, Recherche et Applications en Marketing,  27, 3, 2012, 85-93.

Arnould E.J. and Price L.L. (1993), River magic: extraordinary experience and the extended service encounter, Journal of Consumer Research, 20, 1, 24-45.

Badot O. and Filser M. (2007), Re-enchantment of retailing: toward utopian islands, in A. Carù and B. Cova (coord.), Consuming experience, Abingdon, Routledge, 166-181.

Carù A. and Cova B. (2006), Expériences de marque: comment favoriser l’immersion du consommateur, Décisions Marketing, 41, 43-52.

Csikszentmihlyi M. (1990), Flow: the psychology of optimal experience, New York, Harper & Row.

Csikszentmihlyi M. (1997), Finding flow: the psychology of engagement with everyday life, New York, Basic Books.

Edgell S., Hetherington K. and Warde A. (coord.) (1997), Consumption matters: the production and experience of consumption, Oxford, Blackwell.

Maslow A. (1964), Religions, values and peak experiences, Columbus, Ohio State University Press.

 

 

Expérience client, Méthodes de recherche

Expérience vécue, récits de vie et formes de réminiscence

Le récit de vie est une forme d’accès à l’expérience d’autrui très intéressante, qui prend en compte le point de vue du sujet et « sa vérité » sur les faits qu’il rapporte. « […] il y a du récit de vie dès lors qu’un sujet raconte à une autre personne, chercheur ou pas, un épisode quelconque de son expérience vécue » (Bertaux, 2005, p.36). Contrairement à l’histoire de vie, le récit de vie n’est pas forcément constitué de faits, mais bien des interprétations que les sujets développent à partir des évènements qu’ils rapportent (Bertaux, 2005 ; Özçağlar-Toulouse, 2009).

Est-ce que nous nous souvenons tous de la même manière ? 

L’anmnèse qui désigne la capacité de se rappeler volontairement un souvenir est la condition sine qua non pour élaborer un récit de vie. Cependant, il y a bien des façons de se souvenir.  Wong et Watt (1991), qui ont travaillé sur le vieillissement, identifient ainsi six formes de réminiscence : intégrative, instrumentale, transmissive, narrative, escapiste ou obsessionnelle. Ces formes de réminiscence impactent les souvenirs de l’expérience.

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L’expérience vécue, sa trace et son souvenir..

Ainsi les récits de vie fondés sur la réminiscence intégrative aident le narrateur à  nourrir un sentiment de valeur de soi et de cohérence par rapport au passé. Les récits de vie fondés sur la réminiscence transmissive insistent sur la transmission d’un héritage culturel ou personnel. Dans les récits de vie fondés sur la réminiscence instrumentale, l’accent est mis sur les  activités orientées vers des buts que le narrateur est parvenu à les atteindre…La réminiscence escapiste est fondée quant à elle sur une évasion vers le passé.souvenirs

L’expérience ne subsistant en grande partie que dans le souvenir que le sujet en conserve, il est important de souligner que les formes de réminiscence mobilisées par l’individu façonnent le souvenir qui est construit de l’expérience vécue et donc in fine l’expérience même.

 

Pour aller plus loin…

Bertaux D. (2005), Le récit de vie, 2ème édition, Paris, Armand Colin.

récit de vie bertaux

Özçağlar-Toulouse N. (2009), Quel sens les consommateurs responsables donnent-ils à leur consommation : une approche par les récits de vie, Recherche et Applications en Marketing, 24, 3, 3-23.

Wong P.T. et Watt L. M. (1991), What types of reminiscence are associated with successful aging? Psychology and Aging, 6(2), 272-279.

comportement du consommateur, Consommateurs collaboratifs, Expérience client, Focus théoriques, Posts in English

The role of the consumer in the experience

The role of the consumer in the experience is a complex matter. Antéblian et al. (2013) observe that the literature has long noted the consumer active and fast-changing role. In 1980, Toffler’s The Third Wave already depicted the ‘prosumer’, who is at once producer and consumer.  The reversal of the roles of producer and consumer has been presented as a characteristic of the postmodern era. In the service-dominant (S-D) logic developed by Vargo and Lusch (2004), the consumer is viewed as an integrator of operating resources, with his talents and knowledge allowing him to create value. Prahalad and Ramaswamy (2004) argue that the traditional approach to the market, which placed the creation of value within the company is obsolete. Value is now co-created with the customer.

How do consumers participate to the experience?

Focusing on the shopping experience, Anteblian et al. (2013) identify three levels of consumer participation: Interpretative collaboration, directed self-production, creative coproduction.

 

IMG_1955 (1)
Interprative collaboration : the consumer makes sense of Pepper the robot welcoming him at Uniqlo shop in Tokyo…or does not get it at all

Interpretative collaboration refers to the work of interpretation done by the consumer to give meaning to the context to which he is exposed. This type of participation involves a mental process of constructing meaning and emotional responses.

conso collabo leroy merlin
Self directed production : You want a printed bill? Go ahead and print it yourself…The consumer  has to follow the various stages devised by the retailer

A second level of consumer participation, self-directed production includes all actions that the consumer is required to accomplish in carrying out what is expected of him in a given servuction context. The consumer has no freedom for improvisation. This highly instrumental form of participation is a source of functional value. In the history of retailing, the success of self-service is a good illustration. Likewise today, some consumers value the time saved by scanning their purchases themselves.

Platforms such as eYeka rely on the third consumer participation form : creative coproduction and help brands have access to it. 

A third level of participation, creative coproduction, calls upon the consumer’s intelligence, competences and creativity and gives him fair degree of autonomy. Anteblian and al. (2013) posit that we can speak of creative co-production when the consumer is deeply involved and constructs meaning through his actions during the experience.

Collorative interpretation, self directed production and creative coproduction,  go beyond the shopping experience and can be recognized in other categories of experiences.

 

Sources and further readings

Anteblian, B, Filser, M., and Roederer, C. (2013) Consumption experience in retail environments: A literature review,  Recherche et Applications en Marketing (English Edition)Volume: 28 issue: 3, page(s): 82-109

Prahalad CK, Ramaswamy V (2004) Co-creation experiences: The next practice in value creation, Journal of Interactive Marketing 18(3): 5–14.

Toffler A (1980) The Third Wave. New York: Bantam Books.

Vargo S, Lusch R (2004) Evolving to a new dominant logic for marketing. Journal of Marketing, 68(1): 1–17.

 

 

comportement du consommateur, Consommateurs collaboratifs, Expérience client, Focus théoriques, Stratégies expérientielles

Consumer driven, co-driven or company driven experiences ?

In a beneficial attempt to clarify the role of the consumer within an experience, Carù and Cova (2007) identify three categories of experiences  :  consumer-driven, co-driven and company-driven. This articulation goes beyond the perspective of the company-driven experience developed by Pine and Gilmore (1998, 1999) or Schmitt (1999 a, b).

It acknowledges the fact that consumers create their own experiences from the objects and services they consume, sometimes outside any market offer. An experience can be defined as a meaningful interaction between a subjet, an object within a given situation (moment and place), that entails emotions, hedonic responses and symbolic meanings.

Carù and Cova (2007) suggest placing consumption experiences on a continuum. At one end, they place consumer-driven experiences. These experiences can include products or services provided by companies, yet they take place in environments that are not controlled by the company and give the consumer a large degree of autonomy. Cooking for your friends, gardening or celebrating Christmas at home are examples of  consumer-driven experiences.

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Cooking for friends: a consumer driven experience

At the other end of the continuum are company-driven experiences in which consumers are immersed in hyper-real, themed and closed contexts. A visit to Disneyworld or to an Abercrombie and Fitch store are good illustrations of company –driven experiences.

disney
Hyper-real, themed and closed contexts forstering immersion for a company-driven experience

Experiential platforms to deliver co-driven experiences

In the centre of the continuum are co-driven experiences between the company and the customer. The company provides the conditions for the experience in the form of what Carù and Cova call an experiential platform, but the consumer shapes his or her own experience from the elements proposed. The consumer’s active participation is crucial for producing the experience. Carù and Cova mention sports and some forms of live shows as typical of this category of experiences.

Spectacle sportif.jpg
Sports and live shows as co-driven experiences: the company provides the experiential platform, and the consumer (viewer, sport fan…) does the rest thanks to an active participation

Why does this typology matter? Caru and Cova typolgy matters because it provides useful insights on the consumer role within the experience. It highlights the fact that no experience can occur without the participation of the consumer, yet that the role and the power of the consumer vary a lot depending on the experiential context.

Further readings …

Caru, A. and Cova, B. (2007), Consuming experience: an introduction, In: Consuming Experience (A. Carù & B. Cova, eds), Routledge, Abingdon, 3-16.

Pine, J. B. and Gilmore, J. H. (1998), Welcome to the experience economy, Harvard Business Review, 76, 4, 97-105.

Pine, J. B. and Gilmore, J. H. (1999), The Experience Economy: Work is Theatre and Every Business a Stage, Harvard Business School Press, Boston.

Roederer, C. (2013), Marketing and experiential consumption, EMS, Cormelles le Royal.

Schmitt, B. H. (1999a), Experiential marketing, Journal of Marketing Management, 15, 53-67.

Schmitt, B. H. (1999b), Experiential Marketing: How to Get Customers to Sense, Feel, Think, Act and Relate to Your Company and Brands, The Free Press, New-York.

Expérience client, Focus théoriques, Posts in English, Stratégies expérientielles

Experiential marketing : what are pioneers up to?

In 1999, Bernd Schmitt coined the concept of experiential marketing in his book « Experiential marketing, how to get customers to sense, feel, think, act and relate  to your company and brands ». His main proposition was to revisit « features and benefits » classical marketing and adopt experiential marketing. Experiential marketing is all about designing holistic value propositions that engage customers on physical, emotional and cognitive levels and help differentiate brands. Schmitt (1999) has inspired many and represents together with Pine and Gilmore (1999) a major landmark in the experiential marketing field.

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Schmitt (1999) coined the concept

In 2012, Bernd Schmitt goes a step further, encouraging firms to work on the « happiness of the consumer » as a new business concept. His book « Happy customers everywhere : how your business can profit from the insights of positive psychology » develops this perspective.

 

Happy-Customers-Everywhere
Schmitt (2012) Happiness as the ultimate promise and  business concept

The economy of happiness combines economy with psychology and sociology to measure well-being, quality of life and satisfaction with one’s life. Schmitt (2012) draws on the work of positive psychology (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990, 1997; Seligman, 2011) and on Maslow’s theory of motivation (1964) to propose a new model based on pleasure, sense and commitment to experience (Schmitt, 2012, p.37).

Pine gilmore
1999 : a landmark in the experiential marketing literature

Interestingly enough, while Schmitt thinks about the customer’s happiness, Pine and Gilmore (2007) published  « What consumers really want : authenticity ». Could it be that postmodern consumers are likely to find happiness in authenticity ?

 

 

Pine gilmore authenticity
From the experience economy to the quest for authenticity

More readings…

Csikszentmihlyi M. (1990), Flow: the psychology of optimal experience, New York, Harper & Row.

Csikszentmihlyi M. (1997), Finding flow: the psychology of engagement with everyday life, New York, Basic Books.

Maslow A. (1964), Religions, values and peak experiences, Columbus, Ohio State University Press.

Seligman, M. (2011), Flourish: a visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being, New York, Free Press.

comportement du consommateur, Expérience client, Focus théoriques, Posts in English

Social media as a panopticon experience

The panopticon can be described as an ideal prison with a central tower from which all prisoners locked in individual cells can be observed at all times. Prisoners know it, yet they ignore when they are being observed. This makes them adjust their behaviors. This carceral innovation was imagined by a philosopher, Jeremy Bentham at the end of the XVIIIth century. Michel Foucault, in  Surveiller et Punir (1975) uses the panopticon as a  metaphor for disciplinary societies based on social control.

 

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Bentham’s panopticon

Foucault surveiller

Do we behave as prisoners in a panopticon ?

Think about the way we communicate on social media, does the panopticon metaphor work ? Data about who we are, what we are up to, who our friends are….shape our  online reputation. Revealed data build our own individual cells in which we stand to be observed at all times. We integrate the fact that by expressing or revealing ourselves too much, we might upset some or just not fit in.. Without necessarily realizing it, we start working for thumbs up, likes and all kind of social recognition marks that online networks can deliver.

likes
Hunting for likes

Theorized by Tijman Shep, the concept of social cooling captures the way we control what we say and what we share in order to fit in online. Social cooling as a form of self-censorship brings conformity, risk aversion, increased social rigidity and limits creativity… The social cooling is also probably a new bias netnographers will have to take into account in their analysis.

more on…social cooling

https://www.presse-citron.net/social-cooling-big-data-de-robots/

http://www.socialcooling.com/fr/